The Belgium Twist on Fries, from Expatica

The truth about ‘French’ fries: They’re Belgian, you know

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French fries have nothing to do with France – as many Belgians will attest – so why we do mistakenly refer to them as ‘French fries’? Where did French fries come from?

Fries form half of one of the top Belgian foods along with a pot of mussels – known as moules frites – and are a national Belgian symbol with political punch.

If you say the word potato, the Irish Potato Famine of 1845 and the origination of tubers in South America come to mind. But chop them up, drop them in a vat of simmering oil, add a touch of salt and you’ve got a whole new ball-game of Belgian fries. So where exactly is the French fries origin?

Indeed, you will make no mistake about the French fries origin once you visit Belgium: Fries have permeated into every pore of Belgian culture from pop art and comic strips to music and advertising. You will find fritesstalls (frietkot) across Belgium, which are certain to ensure the economic return on Belgian potatoes (bintjes) for eons to come.

Where did French fries come from?

The ‘chip’ or ‘French fry’ has gone a long way in putting the Kingdom of Belgium on the map – culinary or otherwise – even if they are called ‘freedom fries’ in-flight on Air Force One, ‘patates kizartmasi‘ in an Istanbul Café, ‘gamza teekim‘ on the streets of Seoul or ranskalaiset perunat sitting on a bench in Helsinki.

Often mistaken as French in origin, the word ‘french’ became synonymous with frites due to the fact that, in old English, to ‘french’ was to ‘cut lengthwise’. Hence, the French fry.

“We modest Belgians don’t mind the French claim because we know that fries are God’s gift to our people,” exclaims a website completely dedicated to the art form of Belgian fries making.

You wouldn’t be the only one to mistake the French fries origin. ‘Fry ban targets wrong country’ went a Reuters headline at the height of the French product boycott in the US following its stance against the Iraqi conflict.

“The chip is essentially regarded in Belgium as a culture, social strata and gender bridge: soul food,” says Paul Ilegems, curator of the Belgium Chip Museum on the second floor of Frietkot Max on Antwerp’s Groenplaats.

“What would Belgium be without chips?” he asks in the pages of “Het Belgisch Frietenbook, “Just a grayish zone, an insignificant stain on the globe, deprived of any personality.”

A bit harsh perhaps but it’s obviously clear that frites are serious stuff in Belgium.

“Belgium is beer, cartoons, mussels, chips and the Royal family,” a frietkot (frite stall) owner sums up.

The real history of French fries

What we recognise today as Belgian ‘fritesor ‘friets‘ is thought to have originated in the Meuse region in the year 1680. The poor inhabitants of the Meuse valley area subsisted mainly on fish, but when the river Meuse froze in 1680, potatoes were cut into the shape of fish, fried and used as a substitute to their main staple – or so the story of Belgian fries goes.

The Belgian tourism board says that Belgian fries – ‘les frites’ – were incorrectly named ‘French fries’ by American servicemen when they came to Belgium at the end of World War I. The French fries mislabel was reportedly the result of naming the fries after the French language spoken in Wallonia.

There has been much disagreement over the origin of frites as the region lies in the heart of French-speaking Wallonia, forcing Flanders to desperately seek a Flemish origin to the food. But, as in most countries, food can define culture and in frites are generally accepted as a unifying force and thoroughly ‘Belgian’ – francophone or not.

French fries (or rather Belgian fries) are thought to have arrived in the US in the late 1700s when Thomas Jefferson brought the method back to the colonies. We can guess it’s the method he brought back and not a soggy bag of chips.

In the UK, the first chip is believed to have materialised at Dundee Market in the 1870s, traded by a Belgian immigrant named Edward De Gernier.

As for the frites add-on essential, mayonnaise, its origin is cloudy. One theory connects it to the harbour town of Mahon, liberated by Cardinal Richelieux from the English. The towns of Bayonne and Mayon, however, also claim the golden morsels as their own.

Finding the perfect frites

Frites have essentially become a national Belgian symbol sold out of caravans and shacks and chalets, fried twice (trade secret), dash of salt, glob of mayonnaise, a little plastic fork and presto: perfect fries.

The idea has been exported to New York and, as the song goes, if a chip can make it there it can make it anywhere.

Lest we forget though that there are many levels of Belgian chip-eatery – not all of them are handed over a greasy counter in an off-white paper cone by a burley chip-van owner in Anderlecht. On restaurant menus you can find filet mignon served with a chiffoné of pommes frites, if you please.

Fries have come a long way since their fishy origins and have mutated to fit each culture that has adopted them – newspaper-stained and doused in salt and vinegar in Birmingham, or cooked in peanut oil and served in a basket of palm leaves in Borneo, to name a few.

But they remain Belgian through and through while encouraging Breughel-belly across the globe.

Although the US may not have known it, they were killing two birds with one stone when they boycotted French fries – they made a point to the French and rejected a Belgian product at the same time.

Who would have guessed the political power of potatoes?

French fries recipe

The best potatoes for French fries are fresh, never frozen, and with a medium-firm consistency that is not too firm nor too soft. In the best French fries recipe, frites are cut rectangular around 1cm square. The secret to the Belgian fries recipe is that the potato is fried twice. The Belgian tourism board recommends that the first fry should be done at 150°C and the second fry at 175 °C.

The result are golden perfect French fries that have a soft inside once your crunch through a crispy outside. You then just have to choose your frite topping or speciality fries sauces in Belgium, such as:

  • mayonnaise, curry mayonnaise, curry ketchup
  • andalouse sauce – a mix of peppers, mayonnaise and tomato paste, pickles
  • samurai sauce – mayonnaise with Tunisian chili, spices, tomatoes and bell peppers
  • pickel sauce – a yellow, vinegar-based sauce with turmeric, mustard and chunks of crunchy vegetable.
  • sauce americaine – mayonnaise with tomato, chervil (French parsley), onions, capers, seafood stock and celery.
  • sauce riche – pink, tartar-based sauce
  • fromage – cheese.

Read tips on how to get perfect French fries in this not-no-secret French fries recipe.


Wikipedia on French fries

French fries

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
French Fries
Fries 2

A serving of French fries
Alternative names Chips, finger chips, fries, frites, hot chips, steak fries, potato wedges, wedges
Course Side dish or snack, rarely as a main dish
Place of origin Belgium, France, or Spain
Created by Disputed
Serving temperature Hot, generally salted
Main ingredients
Variations curly fries, shoestring fries, steak fries, sweet potato fries, Chili cheese fries, poutine
Other information Often served with a side of ketchup, mayonnaise, vinegar, barbecue sauce, or other sauce
Cookbook: French Fries  Media: French Fries

French fries (North American English), chips (British English),[1] finger chips (Indian English),[2] or French-fried potatoes are batonnet or allumette-cut deep-fried potatoes. In the United States and most of Canada, the term fries refers to all dishes of fried elongated pieces of potatoes, while in the United Kingdom, Australia, South Africa (rarely), Ireland and New Zealand, thinly cut fried potatoes are sometimes called shoestring fries or skinny fries to distinguish them from chips, which are cut thicker.

French fries are served hot, either soft or crispy, and are generally eaten as part of lunch or dinner or by themselves as a snack, and they commonly appear on the menus of diners, fast food restaurants, pubs, and bars. They are usually salted and, depending on the country, may be served with tomato sauce, ketchup, vinegar, mayonnaise, or other local specialties. Fries can be topped more heavily, as in the dishes of poutine and chili cheese fries. Chips can be made from kumara or other sweet potatoes instead of potatoes. A baked variant, oven chips, uses less oil or no oil.[3] One very common fast food dish is fish and chips.


Pommes frites with a mayonnaise packet

French fries are prepared by first peeling and cutting the potato into even strips. These are then wiped off or soaked in cold water to remove the surface starch, and thoroughly dried.[4][5] They may then be fried in one or two stages. Chefs generally agree that the two-bath technique produces better results.[4][6][7] Potatoes fresh out of the ground can have too high a water content – resulting in soggy fries – so preference is for spuds that have been in storage for a while.[8]

In the two-stage or two-bath method, the first bath, sometimes called blanching, is in hot fat (around 160 °C / 320 °F) to cook them through. This may be done in advance.[4] Then they are more briefly fried in very hot fat (190 °C / 375 °F) to crisp the exterior. They are then placed in a colander or on a cloth to drain, salted, and served. The exact times of the two baths depend on the size of the potatoes. For example, for 2–3mm strips, the first bath takes about 3 minutes, and the second bath takes only seconds.[4] There are several common techniques to cook French Fries. Deep frying is a cooking method in which food is submerged in hot fat, most commonly oil. Vacuum fryers are fit to process low-quality potatoes that contain higher sugar levels than normal, as they frequently have to be processed in spring and early summer before the potatoes from the new harvest become available. In the UK, a Chip pan is a deep-sided cooking pan used for deep-frying. Chip pans are named for their traditional use in frying chips.

Most French fries are produced from frozen potatoes which have been blanched or at least air-dried industrially.[9] Most chain that sell fresh cut fries rely on the Idaho Russet Burbank variety of potatoes. It has been the standard for French fries in the United States.[8] The usual fat for making French fries is vegetable oil. In the past, beef suet was recommended as superior,[4] with vegetable shortening as an alternative. In fact, McDonald’s used a mixture of 93% beef tallow and 7% cottonseed oil until 1990, when they switched to vegetable oil with beef flavoring.[10][11] Starting in the sixties, more fast food restaurants have been using frozen French fries.[8]


Thomas Jefferson had “potatoes served in the French manner” at a White House dinner in 1802.[12][13] The expression “French fried potatoes” first occurred in print in English in the 1856 work Cookery for Maids of All Work by E. Warren: “French Fried Potatoes. – Cut new potatoes in thin slices, put them in boiling fat, and a little salt; fry both sides of a light golden brown colour; drain.”[14] This account referred to thin, shallow-fried slices of potato – it is not clear where or when the now familiar deep-fried batons or fingers of potato were first prepared. In the early 20th century, the term “French fried” was being used in the sense of “deep-fried” for foods like onion rings or chicken.[15][16]

By country

Belgium and the Netherlands

A patatje speciaal, with frietsaus, curry ketchup or tomato ketchup, and chopped raw onions, is popular in the Netherlands.

A Belgian frites shop

There is an ongoing dispute between the French and Belgians about where fries were invented, with both countries claiming ownership.[17] From the Belgian standpoint the popularity of the term “French fries” is explained as a “French gastronomic hegemony” into which the cuisine of Belgium was assimilated because of a lack of understanding coupled with a shared language and geographic proximity between the two countries.[17]

Belgian journalist Jo Gérard claims that a 1781 family manuscript recounts that potatoes were deep-fried prior to 1680 in the Meuse valley, in what was then the Spanish Netherlands (present-day Belgium): “The inhabitants of Namur, Andenne, and Dinant had the custom of fishing in the Meuse for small fish and frying, especially among the poor, but when the river was frozen and fishing became hazardous, they cut potatoes in the form of small fish and put them in a fryer like those here.”[18][19] Gérard has not produced the manuscript that supports this claim due to the fact that it is unrelated to the later history of the French fry, as the potato did not arrive in the region until around 1735. Also, given 18th century economic conditions: “It is absolutely unthinkable that a peasant could have dedicated large quantities of fat for cooking potatoes. At most they were sautéed in a pan…”.[20]

“French fries” for deep fried potato batons were also introduced when American soldiers arrived in Belgium during World War I. The Belgians had previously been catering to the British soldiers’ love of chips and continued to serve them to the Americans when they took over the western end of the front.[21] The Americans took them to be French fried potatoes because they believed themselves to be in France, with French being the local language and the official language of the Belgian Army at that time.[18] At that time, the term “French fries” was growing in popularity – the term was already used in the United States as early as 1899 – although it isn’t clear whether this referred to batons (chips) or slices of potato e.g. in an item in Good Housekeeping which specifically references “Kitchen Economy in France”: “The perfection of French fries is due chiefly to the fact that plenty of fat is used”.[22]

Pommes frites” or just “frites” (French), “frieten” (Flemish) or “patat” (Dutch) became the national snack and a substantial part of several national dishes, such as Moules-frites or Steak-frites.[23] Fries are very popular in Belgium, where they are known as frieten (in Dutch) or frites (in French), and the Netherlands, where among the working classes they are known as patat in the north and, in the south, friet.[24] In Belgium, fries are sold in shops called friteries (French), frietkot/frituur (Dutch), or Fritüre/Frittüre (German). They are served with a large variety of Belgian sauces and eaten either on their own or with other snacks. Traditionally fries are served in a cornet de frites (French), patatzak[25]/frietzak/fritzak (Dutch/Flemish), or Frittentüte (German), a white cardboard cone, then wrapped in paper, with a spoonful of sauce (often mayonnaise) on top.

Friteries and other fast food establishments tend to offer a number of different sauces for the fries and meats. In addition to ketchup and mayonnaise, popular options include:[26] aioli, sauce andalouse, sauce Americaine, Bicky Dressing (Gele Bicky-sauce), curry mayonnaise, mammoet-sauce, peanut sauce, samurai-sauce, sauce “Pickles“, pepper-sauce, tartar sauce, zigeuner sauce, and À la zingara.


In Spain, fried potatoes are called patatas fritas or papas fritas. Another common form, involving larger irregular cuts, is patatas bravas. The potatoes are cut into big chunks, partially boiled and then fried. They are usually seasoned with a spicy tomato sauce, and the dish is one of the most preferred tapas by Spaniards.[27] Fries may have been invented in Spain, the first European country in which the potato appeared from the New World colonies, and assume fries’ first appearance to have been as an accompaniment to fish dishes in Galicia,[28] from which it spread to the rest of the country and then further away, to the “Spanish Netherlands”, which became Belgium more than a century later. Professor Paul Ilegems, curator of the Frietmuseum in Bruges, Belgium, believes that Saint Teresa of Ávila of Spain cooked the first French fries, and refers also to the tradition of frying in Mediterranean cuisine as evidence.[19][29]


Steak frites in Fontainebleau, France

In France and other French-speaking countries, fried potatoes are formally pommes de terre frites, but more commonly pommes frites, patates frites, or simply frites. The words aiguillettes (“needle-ettes”) or allumettes (“matchsticks”) are used when the French fries are very small and thin. One enduring origin story holds that French fries were invented by street vendors on the Pont Neuf bridge in Paris in 1789, just before the outbreak of the French Revolution.[30] However, a reference exists in France from 1775 to “a few pieces of fried potato” and to “fried potatoes”.[31]

Eating potatoes for sustenance was promoted in France by Antoine-Augustin Parmentier, but he did not mention fried potatoes in particular. Many Americans attribute the dish to France and offer as evidence a notation by U.S. President Thomas Jefferson: “Pommes de terre frites à cru, en petites tranches” (“Potatoes deep-fried while raw, in small slices”) in a manuscript in Thomas Jefferson’s hand (circa 1801–1809) and the recipe almost certainly comes from his French chef, Honoré Julien.[12] In addition, from 1813[32] on, recipes for what can be described as “French fries” occur in popular American cookbooks. By the late 1850s, a cookbook was published that used the term French fried potatoes.[33] The thick-cut fries are called Pommes Pont-Neuf[4] or simply pommes frites (about 10 mm); thinner variants are pommes allumettes(matchstick potatoes; about 7 mm), and pommes paille (potato straws; 3–4 mm). (Roughly 0.4, 0.3 and 0.15 inch respectively.) Pommes gaufrettes are waffle fries. A popular dish in France is steak-frites, which is steak accompanied by thin French fries.


The town of Florenceville-Bristol, New Brunswick, headquarters of McCain Foods, calls itself “the French fry capital of the world” and also hosts a museum about potatoes called “Potato World”.[34] It is also one of the world’s largest manufacturers of frozen French fries and other potato specialties.[35]

A popular Québécois dish is poutine, such as this one from La Banquiserestaurant in Montreal. It is made with French fries, cheese curds and gravy.

Frites are the main ingredient in the Canadian/Québécois dish known (in both Canadian English and French) as poutine; a dish consisting of fried potatoes covered with cheese curds and brown gravy. Poutine has a growing number of variations but is generally considered to have been developed in rural Québec sometime in the 1950s, although precisely where in the province it first appeared is a matter of contention.[36][37][38] Canada is also responsible for providing 22% of China’s French fries.[39][40]

Germany, Austria, Switzerland

Currywurst and frites, Germany

French fries migrated to the German-speaking countries during the 19th century. In Germany, where they are usually known by the French words pommes frites, or only Pommes or Fritten (derived from the French words but pronounced as German words). They are often served with mayonnaise, and are a popular walking snack offered by Schnellimbiss (“quick bite”) kiosks.[41] Since the advent of Currywurst in the 1950s, a paper tray of sausage (bratwurst or bockwurst) anointed with curry ketchup, laced with additional curry powder and a side of french fries, has become an immensely popular fast food meal.[42]

United Kingdom and Ireland

The standard deep-fried cut potatoes in the United Kingdom are called chips, and are cut into pieces between 10 and 15 mm (0.39 and 0.59 in) wide. They are occasionally made from unpeeled potatoes (skins showing). British chips are not the same thing as potato chips (an American term); those are called “crisps” in Britain. In the UK, chips are part of the popular, and now international, fast food dish fish and chips.

The first chips fried in the UK were sold by Mrs. ‘Granny’ Duce in one of the West Riding towns in 1854.[43] A blue plaque in Oldham marks the origin of the fish-and-chip shop, and thus the start of the fast food industry in Britain.[44] In Scotland, chips were first sold in Dundee: “in the 1870s, that glory of British gastronomy – the chip – was first sold by Belgian immigrant Edward De Gernier in the city’s Greenmarket”.[45]In Ireland the first chip shop was “opened by Giuseppe Cervi”, an Italian immigrant, “who arrived there in the 1880s”.[46] It is estimated that in the UK, 80% of households buy frozen fries each year.[47]

United States

French fry production at a restaurant with thermostatic temperature control

Although French fries were a popular dish in most British commonwealth countries, the “thin style” French fries have been popularized worldwide in large part by the large American fast food chains like McDonald’s, Burger King, and Wendy’s.[48] In the United States, the J. R. Simplot Company is credited with successfully commercializing French fries in frozen form during the 1940s. Subsequently, in 1967, Ray Kroc of McDonald’s contracted the Simplot company to supply them with frozen fries, replacing fresh-cut potatoes as an ingredient. In 2004, 29% of the United States’ potato crop was used to make frozen fries – 90% consumed by the food services sector and 10% by retail.[49] The United States is also known for supplying China with most of their French fries as 70% of China’s French fries are imported.[50].[40] Pre-made French fries have been available for home cooking since the 1960s, having been pre-fried (or sometimes baked), frozen and placed in a sealed plastic bag.[51] Some varieties of French fries that appeared later have been battered and breaded, and many fast food chains in the U.S. dust the potatoes with kashi, dextrin, and other flavor coatings for crispier fries with particular tastes.[52] French fries are one of the most popular dishes in the United States, commonly being served as a side dish to entrees and being seen in fast food restaurants. The average American eats around 30 pounds of French fries a year. [53][54]


A child holding tornado fries

There are several variants of French fries. A partial list, in alphabetical order:

  • Carne asada fries – fries covered with carne asada, guacamole, sour cream and cheese
  • Cheese fries (UK – cheesy chips) – fries covered with cheese
  • Chile fries – (not to be confused with chili fries) fries topped with green chile peppers, common in the US state of New Mexico
  • Chili fries – (not to be confused with chile fries) fries covered with chili con carne
  • Chili cheese fries – fries covered with chili and cheese
  • Crinkle-cut fries – also known as “wavy fries”, they’re cut in a corrugated, ridged fashion[55]
  • Curly fries – characterized by their spring-like shape, cut from whole potatoes using a specialized spiral slicer.[55]
  • Curry chips – fries covered in curry sauce, a popular item served by chip shops in Ireland
  • French fry sandwich[56] – such as the chip butty and the Mitraillette
  • Oven fries – fries that are cooked in the oven as a final step in the preparation (having been coated with oil during preparation at the factory), often sold frozen
  • Potato wedges – Thick-cut fries[55] with the skin
  • Poutine – a dish consisting of fries topped with cheese curds and light brown gravy and principally associated with the Canadian province of Québec
  • Shoestring fries – thin-cut fries[55]
  • Steak fries – thick-cut fries[55] In France, when served with steak, Steak frites
  • Sweet potato fries – fries made with sweet potatoes instead of traditional white potatoes
  • Tornado fries – spiral-cut potatoes that are placed on a skewer and then deep fried[55]
  • Waffle fries – lattice-shaped fries[55] obtained by quarter-turning the potato before each next slide over a grater and deep-frying just once


Fries tend to be served with a variety of accompaniments, such as salt and vinegar (malt, balsamic or white), pepper, Cajun seasoning, grated cheese, melted cheese, mushy peas, heated curry sauce, curry ketchup (mildly spiced mix of the former), hot sauce, relish, mustard, mayonnaise, bearnaise sauce, tartar sauce, chili, tzatziki, feta cheese, garlic sauce, fry sauce, butter, sour cream, ranch dressing, barbecue sauce, gravy, honey, aioli, brown sauce, ketchup, lemon juice, piccalilli, pickled cucumber, pickled gherkins, pickled onions or pickled eggs.[57]

Health aspects

Fries frying in oil

French fries primarily contain carbohydrates (mostly in the form of starch) and protein from the potato, and fat absorbed during the deep-frying process. Salt, which contains sodium is almost always applied as a surface seasoning. For example, a large serving of French fries at McDonald’s in the United States is 154 grams. The 510 calories come from 66 g of carbohydrates, 24 g of fat, 7 g of protein and 350 mg of sodium.[58]

French fries have been critically panned by experts for being very unhealthy. According to Jonathan Bonnet, MD, in a TIME magazine article, “fries are nutritionally unrecognizable from a spud” as they “involve frying, salting, and removing one of the healthiest parts of the potato: the skin, where many of the nutrients and fiber are found.”[59]Kristin Kirkpatrick, RD, calls French fries “…an extremely starchy vegetable dipped in a fryer that then loads on the unhealthy fat, and what you have left is a food that has no nutritional redeeming value in it at all.”[59] David Katz, MD states that “French fries are often the super-fatty side dish to a burger—and both are often used as vehicles for things like sugar-laced ketchup and fatty mayo.”[59]

Frying french fries in beef tallow, lard, or other animal fats adds saturated fat to the diet. Replacing animal fats with tropical vegetable oils, such as palm oil, simply substitutes one saturated fat for another. For many years partially hydrogenated vegetable oils were used as a means of avoiding cholesterol and reducing saturated fatty acid content, but in time the trans fat content of these oils was perceived as contributing to cardiovascular disease.[60] Starting in 2008, many restaurant chains and manufacturers of pre-cooked frozen French fries for home reheating phased out trans fat containing vegetable oils[61][62]

French fries contain some of the highest levels of acrylamides of any foodstuff, and concerns have been raised about the impact of acrylamides on human health.[63][64] According to the American Cancer Society, it is not clear as of 2013 whether acrylamide consumption affects people’s risk of getting cancer.[63] A meta-analysis indicated that dietary acrylamide is not related to the risk of most common cancers, but could not exclude a modest association for kidney, endometrial or ovarian cancers.[64] A lower-fat method for producing a French fry-like product is to coat “Frenched” or wedge potatoes in oil and spices/flavoring before baking them. The heat will not be as high as when deep frying, and this also reduces acrylamides.[65]

Oven-baked fries

Legal issues

In June 2004, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), with the advisement of a federal district judge from Beaumont, Texas, classified batter-coated French fries as a vegetable under the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act. This was primarily for trade reasons; French fries do not meet the standard to be listed as a processed food.[66][67] This classification, referred to as the “French fry rule”, was upheld in the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit case Fleming Companies, Inc. v. USDA.[68][69]

In the United States, in 2002, the McDonald’s Corporation agreed to donate to Hindus and other groups to settle lawsuits filed against the chain for mislabeling French fries and hash browns as vegetarian because beef extract was added in their production.[11]

See also


  1. Jump up ^ “chip: definition of chip in Oxford dictionary (British English)”. 12 September 2013. Retrieved 16 September2013.
  2. Jump up ^ Indian English, “finger chip”. Cambridge Dictionary Online.
  3. Jump up ^ “Chunky oven chips”. BBC Good Food. BBC. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
  4. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Saint-Ange, Evelyn and Aratow, Paul (translator) (2005) [1927]. La Bonne Cuisine de Madame E. Saint-Ange: The Essential Companion for Authentic French Cooking. Larousse, translation Ten Speed Press. p. 553. ISBN 1-58008-605-5.
  5. Jump up ^ Fannie Farmer, The Boston Cooking-School Cook Book, 1896, s.v.
  6. Jump up ^ Blumenthal, Heston (17 April 2012). “How to cook perfect spuds”. the age. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
  7. Jump up ^ Bocuse, Paul (10 December 1998). La Cuisine du marché (in French). Paris: Flammarion. ISBN 978-2-08-202518-8.
  8. ^ Jump up to: a b c “Russet Burbank”. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
  9. Jump up ^ “The Making of French Fries”. Retrieved December 8,2017.
  10. Jump up ^ Schlosser, Eric (2001). Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of All-American Meal. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-97789-4
  11. ^ Jump up to: a b Grace, Francie (5 June 2002). “McDonald’s Settles Beef Over Fries”. CBS News. Retrieved 4 May 2011.
  12. ^ Jump up to: a b Ebeling, Charles (31 October 2005). “French fried: From Monticello to the Moon, A Social, Political and Cultural Appreciation of the French Fry”. The Chicago Literary Club. Retrieved 12 January 2007.
  13. Jump up ^ Fishwick, Marshall W (1998). “The Savant as Gourmet”. The Journal of Popular Culture. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. 32 (part 1): 51–58. doi:10.1111/j.0022-3840.1998.3201_51.x.
  14. Jump up ^ Home : Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
  15. Jump up ^ Mackenzie, Catherine (7 April 1935). “Food the City Likes Best”. The New York Times Magazine: SM18. Retrieved 15 April 2007. … the chef at the Rainbow Room launches into a description of his special steak, its French-fried onion rings, its button mushrooms
  16. Jump up ^ Rorer, Sarah Tyson (c. 1902). “Page 211”. Mrs. Rorer’s New Cook Book. Philadelphia: Arnold & Company. p. 211. Retrieved 12 April 2007. French Fried Chicken
  17. ^ Jump up to: a b Schehr, Lawrence R.; Weiss, Allen S. (2001). French Food: On the Table On the Page and in French Culture. Abingdon: Routledge. p. 158. ISBN 0415936284.
  18. ^ Jump up to: a b (in French) Hugues Henry (16 August 2001)“La Frite est-elle belge?”. Archived from the original on 24 May 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2012. . Retrieved 12 September 2012.
  19. ^ Jump up to: a b Ilegems, Paul (1993). De Frietkotcultuur (in Dutch). Loempia. ISBN 90-6771-325-2.
  20. Jump up ^ Leclercq, Pierre (2 February 2010). La véritable histoire de la pomme de terre frite,, mentioning the work of Fernand Pirotte on the history of the potato
  21. Jump up ^ McDonald, George (2007). Frommer’s Belgium, Holland & Luxembourg. Wiley Publishing. p. 485. ISBN 978-0-470-06859-5.
  22. Jump up ^ Handy, Mrs. Moses P. “Kitchen Economy in France”, Good Housekeeping, Volumes 28–29 159 Vol XXIX No 1 July 1899 Whole No 249. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  23. Jump up ^ Schehr, Lawrence R.; Weiss, Allen S. (2001). French Food: On the Table On the Page and in French Culture. Abingdon: Routledge. pp. 158–9. ISBN 0415936284.
  24. Jump up ^ See this map indicating where patat/friet/frieten is used in the Low Countries
  25. Jump up ^ (in Dutch) Patatzak vouwen – Video – Allerhande – Albert Heijn. Retrieved on 13 November 2016.
  26. Jump up ^ “La Frite se mange-t-elle à toutes les sauces?” (in French). 2011. Archived from the original on 16 November 2008. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
  27. Jump up ^ “Patatas Bravas”. Retrieved November 12, 2017.
  28. Jump up ^ “Galicia Origins”. Retrieved November 12,2017.
  29. Jump up ^ “Saint Teresa”. Retrieved November 12, 2017.
  30. Jump up ^ “La frite est-elle Belge ou Française ?”. Le Monde (in French). 2 January 2013. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
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Should McDonald’s go Back to Beef Tallow for Great Fries?


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Were McDonald’s Fries Better Before the ’90s?

Malcolm Gladwell discusses a change in the recipe that impacted his childhood


Photo illustration by Chris Hondros/Getty Images

In February, The Ringer ranked McDonald’s french fries as the third-best fast food item in America. But some think that McDonald’s fries used to be much, much better. On a recent episode of his podcast, Revisionist History, Malcolm Gladwell uncovered a change that McDonald’s made in its fries in 1992. Were the fries better before then? Gladwell and Joe House discussed the change on the latest episode of House of Carbs.

Listen to the full podcast here. This transcript has been edited and condensed.

Gladwell: I remember, as I’m sure you remember, how good McDonald’s french fries were back in the day. When I was a teenager and I went to McDonald’s all the time, I went there because of the fries. And then at a certain point, the fries didn’t taste the same. They sucked. I go back there now and they’re not the fries I grew up on. And so I’ve always been curious about this. What happened?

I decided I’m going to get to the bottom of this. And the answer is—they changed the way they made them in 1992. They went from frying them in beef tallow to frying them in some combination of vegetable oil. And as you dig into this, what you realize is that that is not an inconsequential move. It’s not like when you’re frying an egg where it doesn’t really matter what you fry it in. A fried egg is a fried egg. A french fry is a combination of a potato and some kind of cooking element. The thing you fry it in becomes a constituent part of the fry.

There was an enormous thought that went into how to make a french fry properly back in the ’50s, when fast food [was] getting started in this country. And let’s also remember, it’s a crucial part of the story that McDonald’s is McDonald’s not because of the burger. It’s McDonald’s because of the fries. Ray Kroc, when he goes to the original fast food place run by the McDonald brothers in San Bernardino, California, in the ’50s, he didn’t give a shit about the burger. I mean, there’s tons of good burgers. Anyone who has barbecued knows you can’t botch the burger, right? The fries were what blew him away. And he says in his autobiography, the fries would be sacrosanct. In other words, he was attracted to this—to what the McDonald brothers were doing because they had figured out the secret of the fry. And he wasn’t going to screw it up. And then what happened? He screwed it up. Forty years later, he changed the recipe.

I mean this is the emotional undercurrent of my podcast. It’s called “McDonald’s Broke My Heart” because they did break my heart. I care passionately about fries.

House: So during my lifetime and yours, it was widely accepted amongst all of my peers and friends and even adults that McDonald’s served the very best french fries. And for me, that has persisted to my thinking today, notwithstanding the fact that I know that the recipe changed. And what I’m curious about is—because you were introduced to McDonald’s french fries kind of later, not as a child—it’s probably a lot more palpable. The experience of your enjoyment of the french fries changed in a way that it didn’t change for me that way.

Gladwell: You got anchored. I think maybe that’s why I had such a bad reaction to the switch. What I do in the show is I go to the leading food research and development house in the country—place called Mattson—and I had them … do a taste test. And they made french fries just like McDonald’s would. The old-fashioned way using beef tallow, and then they made a precise replica of the modern fries, and we did a blind taste test. It’s no contest. I mean, it’s like you’re eating two completely different foodstuffs. It’s phenomenal. It blows my mind that McDonald’s would do this. So they know it better than anyone what they had to give up when they shifted from beef tallow. They were throwing away the franchise. And they must have done taste tests. And they must have said, “Oh my God, we’re taking something that’s an A+ and we’re taking it down to a B-, and even though our brand and our livelihood depends on this food item, we’re going to throw it away.”

House: This is basically a cost-benefit analysis, right?

Gladwell: I think they were—there was a time of real hysteria about saturated fat, and they thought that fast food would be doomed unless it donned the cloak of good nutrition. Even though that’s absurd. I mean, it’s a french fry. It’s never going to be a healthy product. And it turns out to be false that vegetable oil is healthier for you than beef tallow. That’s also wrong. So not only did they destroy the french fry, they gave us something that was worse for us from a health perspective. So everything about it was a mistake. If they had any balls at all, they would turn around and say, “We were wrong, and we’re going back to fries the old way.”

Baking Your Own Crisp Fries

The Secret to Baking Perfectly Crispy French Fries

Chances are, you probably already know how to make French fries. Toss sliced potatoes with a little bit of oil, transfer to a baking sheet, and bake until crispy. It’s so easy that your dog could probably do it, if only your dog had opposable thumbs.

So why do they never seem to turn out as golden and delicious as you expected?

Because, like with all seemingly simple recipes, there’s a way to getting things just right. Don’t worry—it’s not complicated. In fact, you don’t even need a recipe. To make really delicious oven fries, all you need is the right ingredients in the right ratios, plus a few basic techniques to achieve that mouthwatering crisp-on-the-outside, fluffy-on-the-inside texture. Here’s how to do it.

1. Start with the right spuds.

Opt for plain old Russet potatoes. Unlike Yukon Golds or red-skinned potatoes, they’re starchy instead of waxy. And that high-starch content is key for helping your fry crisp up on the outside while staying fluffy on the inside, says Paul Malvone, executive chef of the burger meal-delivery kit service BurgaBox.

2. Slice them on the thinner side.

Just like a great French fry, a great oven fry needs the right balance of crisp outer crust to soft, fluffy center. To get that, you want potato slices that are about 1/4-inch thick, says Malvone. Fries sliced thinner will burn before they finish cooking through. Go thicker, and you’ll be veering into baked potato territory.

3. Pat them dry and toss with a secret ingredient.

Moisture on the outside of your potato slices makes it harder for oil to adhere to the surface. And if the oil can’t adhere to the surface, your fries won’t crisp up. Give your sliced potatoes a quick pat with a paper or kitchen towel to dry them off. Then toss them with a little bit of cornstarch, Malvone says. It might sound surprising, but the cornstarch absorbs even more moisture and helps form a crust-like outer layer that’ll deliver maximum crispiness. You don’t need much—just a tablespoon per pound of potatoes.

4. Don’t skimp on the fat.

There’s no need to douse your potatoes in oil. But coating them in a thin layer of fat is a must for crisp, crunchy fries. “If you don’t use any oil, the texture will be softer, like a baked potato,” Malvone says. Use 1 to 2 tablespoons of olive or canola oil per pound of potatoes, and toss the potato slices with the oil thoroughly to make sure that every piece is fully coated.

5. Spread them out evenly on the baking sheet.

Arrange potato slices in a single layer so no pieces are overlapping. (If the pieces overlap, use a second baking sheet or bake the potatoes in batches.) Spuds that don’t have enough breathing room will steam instead of crisp up, Malvone explains.

6. Crank up the oven.

Heat—and plenty of it—gets fries crispy on the outside and creamy on the inside. The magic temperature is 450 Fahrenheit, Malvone says. Just make sure your oven has fully finished preheating before placing the fries inside. The super-high temperature will cause the outside of the fries to start sizzling immediately, sending them on their way to golden brown deliciousness.

7. Flip them halfway through.

Fries are pretty low-maintenance once they’re in the oven. Just bake them for 20 to 25 minutes until they’re crisp and golden on the outside and soft on the inside. And make sure to flip them halfway through. That’ll promote even browning, so your finished fries are crunchy on all sides instead of just on the bottom, says Malvone.

8. Eat them ASAP.

You probably won’t have much trouble here, but make sure to serve your fries hot from the oven (preferably with a sprinkle of sea salt for extra flavor). Just like French fries, oven fries start to lose their crispness as soon as they cool. So hurry up and dig in!

McDonald’s introduces the Frork?

McDonald’s releases a ‘uselessly useful’ French fry utensil you never knew you needed

McDonald’s new frork is an amazingly new ‘uselessly useful’ utensil
McDonald’s new frork is an amazingly new ‘…

If you thought the spork was a culinary marvel, McDonald’s new frork will change your life… kind of. Josh King has the story (@abrodgetoland). Buzz60


The days of getting your fingers dirty while sopping up toppings with fries are over.

McDonald’s unveiled a “uselessly useful” utensil called a “frork” Monday in a hilarious infomercial hosted by McDonald’s Chef Mike and pitchman Anthony Sullivan. The frork is essentially a fork, but with French fries.

The frork was released as part of the rollout of McDonald’s new Signature Crafted Recipe Sandwiches. 

As Sullivan notes in the infomercial, the frork was developed to ensure customers can scoop up any toppings that fall out of McDonald’s new pico guacamole, sweet BBQ bacon and maple bacon dijon sandwiches.

“When savoring these recipes, there’s a hitch you just can’t ditch: The topping dropping,” Sullivan says in the infomercial. “This is a real problem. Wait, sorry is this a real problem? Probably not, but good news we solved it anyway.”

Sullivan notes that the “flavor-focused” frork allows people to ‘Pico’p the Pico guacamole” that inevitably falls out of the sandwich, and save every last bit of the maple bacon.

“The frork is ludicrous-ly easy to use,” Sullivan says, noting that it can be used by those who are right handed and left handed, and even works in the dark.

The frork will be available while supplies last at participating restaurants on May 5 with the purchase of a Signature Crafted Recipe sandwich.

Because McDonald’s says an infomercial wouldn’t be a true infomercial without a toll-free number, the fast-food chain also included a phone number where the first 100 callers will receive a frork and the first 5,000 will recipe a coupon for a Signature Crafted Recipe sandwich: 1-844-McD-FRORK.

Cue the first-world problem memes.

Martha Stewart’s French Fries

French Fries

The secret of delectable fries lies in the frying process. The oil needs to be just the right temperature — too cool, the potatoes will absorb the oil; too hot, the outsides of the potatoes will burn.




  • 4 medium Idaho or russet potatoes
    Potatoes Russet
    $1.69 thru 05/09
  • Vegetable or olive oil, for frying
  • Coarse salt, to taste


  1. Peel potatoes, and cut into desired size and shape. To make thick French fries, slice potatoes lengthwise into 1/4-inch slices, and cut again into 1/4-inch strips. For shoestring potatoes, use a mandoline fitted with the fine julienne blade. Make basket-weave-style fries by fitting the mandoline with the fluted cutting blade; rotate the potato 90 degrees between each pass over the blade. Place sliced potatoes in a large nonreactive bowl, and cover with water.

  2. Drain potatoes, and dry thoroughly with a towel. Heat 3 to 4 inches oil in a heavy-bottomed pot over medium heat. Use a thermometer to ensure the temperature is correct: 325 degrees for French fries, 375 degrees for shoestring and basket-weave fries.

  3. Carefully add potatoes to oil in small batches so as not to lower the temperature of the oil. Cook shoestring and basket-weave potatoes for 2 to 3 minutes, turning occasionally. French fries need to cook for 5 to 6 minutes, turning occasionally. They will not take on much color at this point.

  4. Transfer to a flattened brown paper bag that has been lined with paper towels, and let cool for a few minutes or until just before ready to serve. French fries need to be fried a second time: Raise oil temperature to 375 degrees. and fry for until crisp and golden, about 1 to 2 minutes. Remove from oil, and drain again on the paper bag. Sprinkle with salt, and serve.


I just saw an announcement that the Army has called for proposals from agencies for its recruiting account because the number of qualified young adults enlisting has been dropping. The fees available for such a new account, currently held by McCann Worldwide is shown to be up to $4 BILLION over a ten year period! That’s a lot of dough for recruiting.

Wouldn’t this be a good time to create a universal draft, which could not only save most of that $4 BILLION tagged for recruitment, but much more importantly, provide a training  and service opportunity for all qualified young Americans in both the military and other federal service (such as rebuilding infrastructure throughout the nation)? It would expand employment and training opportunities for young people after high school, and perhaps before college or other technical career training.

One other by-product of a universal draft is that the citizenry, not only those doing federal service but their families, would be more engaged with the federal government, and develop a keener sense of what it takes to be a true American citizen. And, there would also be closer citizen oversight and participation in our federal government, because families across the land would be engaged in serving their nation, as well as benefit from the work of these engaged young Americans.

Today is National French Fry Day! Celebrate With A Fry!


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A Social, Political and Cultural Appreciation of the French Fry

By Charles Ebeling

Presented on October 31, 2005

© 2005 Charles Ebeling

This Halloween night’s essay is, perhaps disappointingly, not one about skulls and bones and things that moan in the night. And I hope it’s not received that way either! My topic is about one of those little things that we so often take for granted, yet one of those many small presences that make the world go ‘round, and that add some of the color, flavor and zest, if not romance, to our everyday world.

What follows is a social, political and cultural appreciation of that humble, crisp, vilified, salty, glorious and slivered bit of teased and fried tuber that is called – at least on occasion when Congress is not in a snit of geopolitical retaliation – the french fry.

As the old saying goes, it’s not wise to go grocery shopping on an empty stomach. So now that our appetites are in check, let’s enter the big wide world of that very tiny, yet surprisingly powerful influence on human life.

This story is both part personal journey and part research, with a dash of whimsy thrown in for good measure. It is a personal journey in that, for years, my curriculum vitae began with this sentence: “Chuck has loved McDonald’s french fries since he was a teenager, and has been talking about them ever since.” And yes, my McDonald’s corporate bio really opened that way.

Indeed my first memory of french fries was from the time when I was 15, hanging out with some of my buddies on a bench at the new McDonald’s in LaGrange – one of the early ones in the chain – munching bag after bag of 15 cent french fries and quaffing paper cups of orange drink, watching the girls drive through the lot, long before there was any such as thing as a drive-thru.

As my disclaimer, McDonald’s – yes THAT McDonald’s of Dow Jones industrial strength and french fry fame – later paid my salary, directly or indirectly, for nearly a quarter of a century, first as a Michigan Avenue public relations consultant, and later as a member of the corporate staff at, what one author calls Hamburger Central, in suburban Oak Brook, Illinois.

I retired on the cusp of the Millennium, partly because I’d decided that working in just one century was more than enough for me. Until then, I’d been serving as the corporate communications officer and chief global spokesperson for the Golden Arches. And just for the record, as a McRetiree, I no longer speak for McDonald’s in any official capacity, other than as a McFan of the McBrand.

Notwithstanding all these disclaimers, I never had the time to become a true expert on much of the lore of the french fry, at least until now, as my professional interest in fries was primarily from an economic perspective, mingled with frequent and fully voluntary samplings in the corporate test kitchens and frequent research trips to the “field.” Hence, my comment that this story is also the product of new research, primarily on the trusty internet, but including at least one field trip, this time to the legendary and quite remarkable site of the humble fried tuber’s earliest introduction to America.

It was there, at Thomas Jefferson’s home, Monticello, in historic Virginia, last June, that the tour docent confirmed to me that the adventurous farmer, signer of the Declaration of Independence, and former ambassador to France, Jefferson, had indeed brought the french fry to America in 1802. In fact the recipe for french fries was noted in a manuscript in Jefferson’s own hand, and almost certainly came from his French chef, Honore Julien.

So tonight, I’ve brought together my professional and personal perspectives, my own culinary propensities, and new research for your after-dining pleasure, in this global appreciation of a tiny, tasty thing, called a French fry.

When I say french fry, do you envision the word ‘french” as capitalized? If you do, you no doubt consider the french fry to be of French origin. But they don’t call them French fries in France, do they, except maybe at McDonald’s. But at your typical bistro on the left bank, they are called what? Pommes frites, the fried version of pommes de terre, literally means “fried apples.” Piled high on a sizzling platter next to a grilled steak topped with seasoned butter, we’re talking Steak Frites, right?

Ponder this, when a potato is “cut into thin lengthwise strips before cooking,” according to Webster, it is considered to have been “frenched.” The English verb “fry,” is ambiguous, and can refer both to sautéing and to deep-fat frying. The French verb it derives from refers unambiguously to deep-fat frying. Indeed, when Francophile Thomas Jefferson had his staff over at the White House serve his guests from large silver bowls of fried potatoes, prepared using a recipe he’d picked up in Paris, they became known as – riddle solved — french fries – in lower cased ‘french’.

Of course, to complicate matters, and the entomology of the french fry is indeed a bit complex, the french fry may have actually been created in a french-speaking area of southern Belgium, which however was not to become part of France until 1830. More on this puzzle later.

With this argument about capitalization and origins of the fry itself under our belts, let’s consider the early origins of the potato. How the potato found its way from the South American highlands into those fry boxes at McDonald’s is one adventurous story, indeed, involving Conquistadors, Marie Antoinette, Thomas Jefferson, of course, and a pair of entrepreneurial brothers named Dick and Mac McDonald.

Down in Peru, the Inca Indians were the first people known to have cultivated potatoes, as early as 750 BC. They had many uses for potatoes, which ranged in size from a small nut to an apple, and in color from red and gold to blue and black. They didn’t fry them, but they did worship them, and even measured time with them, correlating units of time to how long it took to grow a potato crop. The Spanish conquistadores came across the knobby little tubers they called “truffles” in the high Andean village of Sorocota. In 1533, Pedro de Leon discovered they prevented “scurvy,” and finding they remained fresh longer at sea than did limes, the potato quickly became standard issue to the crews of Spanish and English ships. That’s how what the Spanish came to call the “edible stone,” arrived in Europe.

In 1596, Sir Francis Drake sailed for home after defeating some Spanish in the Caribbean, grabbed some potatoes for the trip, and welcomed aboard a human cargo of homesick colonials in Virginia. One of these passengers handed a potato to a horticulturist in England, who dubbed it a Virginia potato. In Germany, there is a monument to the potato with the inscription, “To God and Sir Francis Drake, who brought to Europe for the everlasting benefit of the poor – the potato.” But it was not until the next century that the potato would actually gain a footing in Virginia.

Being a member of the nightshade family, superstitions in Europe categorized the potato as evil and poisonous, and even as a dangerous aphrodisiac. But then entered King Frederick William of Germany, where the tuber was considered only suitable for livestock and prisoners. As a deterrent to famine, the king took up the cause and ordered peasants to grow and eat it – or have their noses cut off. Ouch!

France’s Antoine Parmentier helped King Louis XIV popularize the potato in France. Parmentier, in a burst of public relations genius, created a feast with only potato dishes, a concept he found possible while imprisoned in Germany and fed only potatoes.

This 1767 dinner – a potato-eating extravaganza — was attended by another American Francophile, Benjamin Franklin, and Marie Antoinette, wearing potato blossoms in her hair. The feast even included a potato liqueur. Master promoter Parmentier proceeded to plant an acre of potatoes in the countryside, with highly visible armed guards during day, as if the potato field were highly valuable. But, cleverly, he had it left unsupervised at night. Peasants soon concluded that the potatoes were highly prized, so they stole them, planted them in their own fields and soon the potato became a staple throughout France. Then it proceeded to gain acceptance throughout Scotland, Holland, Austria, Switzerland, Germany and Italy.

Potatoes even led to a war. In 1778, Prussia and Austria fought a war by trying to starve each other’s army by consuming their food source, mostly potatoes. It became known as the Potato War.

It took none other than Sir Walter Raleigh to bring the potato to Ireland, when Queen Elizabeth I granted him 40,000 acres there to grow potatoes and tobacco. In 1733, an English seeds man summed up popular opinion of the potato this way: “it shall henceforth be reckon’d as a food fit only for Irishmen and clowns.” As a side note, do you know why the potato is sometimes called a “spud?” The name came from the type of spade the Irish used for digging potatoes.

It is odd to think that Sir Walter Raleigh’s contribution to the explosion of potato growing in Ireland was what led indirectly to the ultimate immigration of many Irish to America, when the potato blight hit in 1845, and a million Irish starved. The Irish had previously suffered from inadequate food supplies, so had readily adopted the tuber, which grew well in their climate until the potato famine set in. Only today is new DNA research on dried potato blossoms from that time, which had been preserved at Kew gardens, promising to identify the disease that caused the deadly potato blight.

The potato itself made the trip to America a bit earlier, when in 1762, the governor of Bermuda sent two large cedar chests containing potatoes and other vegetables to Frances Wyatt, governor of Virginia at Jamestown. Today, the potato is grown in every state and in about 125 countries worldwide.

But, from whence comes the french fry? Notwithstanding Jefferson’s introduction of the treat to America, the French and the Belgians still debate who created it first. Expert opinions are divided, but by the 1830’s deep fried potatoes were a taste sensation in both countries. Recipes for fried potatoes in French cookbooks go back at least to 1755. The first reference to french fries in English appeared in O. Henry’s book “Rolling Stones” in 1894. He wrote: “Our countries are great friends. We have given you Lafayette and French fried potatoes.” Yet, when the controversy over Freedom Fries began, in 2003, as part of a Republican protest against France’s opposition to the war on Iraq, the French embassy claimed that the food was actually Belgian in origin.

Belgium itself lays claim as the originator of french fries, partly based on reference to poor inhabitants of an area of the Meuse valley near Liege, Belgium. They often accompanied their meals with small fried fish, but when the river froze and they couldn’t fish, they cut potatoes lengthwise the same size as their favorite little fish and fried them in oil. Even more proof arises to foster their claim in that a Belgian named Frits opened a stand selling fries in 1871, giving his own name to the product, which is the French name for the dish in Belgium to this day. Some four thousand such friekot or friture stands appear everywhere in Belgium. There, Belgium fries, made with Belgium Bintje potatoes, cooked twice and served in paper cones, are traditionally enjoyed with tangy mayonnaise rather than catsup. Today, a growing number of Belgium fry shacks or frietkots are to be found in the U.S., mostly in New York and the northeast.

Then there are the Spanish. They once controlled the area that is now Belgium and claim that the recipe for french fries first appeared in Galicia, where it was served as an accompaniment to fish dishes. From there they say it traveled aboard Spanish galleons to Belgium.

Well, to bring it back home to the USA, how did the contemporary ubiquitous french fry ever become so popular among the masses over here, given its early and elite domestic launch by Thomas Jefferson?

At the St. Louis World’s Fair of 1904, a potter from Athens, Texas named Fletcher Davis, who wasn’t selling enough pottery back home, opened a lunch counter. He served potato strips there, an idea from a friend back in Paris, Texas. But a reporter thought he’d said “Paris, France,” and thus another legend took root regarding the origin of the name.

French fries really took off in America after World War I, when thousands of hungry soldiers returning from stations in Northern France and Belgium, demanded them. It was “over there” that the “Doughboys” were introduced to the tasty fries.

Today, less than one hundred years later, more than 7 Billion pounds of french fries are served in America alone each year. Some 140 pounds of potatoes are consumed per person, including 50 pounds of french fries, and that’s just half of what the typical European consumes. Potatoes have become the world’s fourth largest food staple, after wheat, corn and rice. And just as Steak Frites is a dish synonymous with French cuisine, today’s “hamburger and fries” is shorthand for all things American.

May I make a brief diversion to the history of the ubiquitous hamburger? As you might guess, the hamburger traces its roots back to the great port city of Hamburg, Germany, where it was thought to have arrived from the eastern ports of the Baltic Provinces, as a spiced dish of raw shredded beef, “Steak Tartare.” Before that, it’s believed that nomads on the Russian Steppes developed a taste for a dish of such raw spiced chopped meat, wrapped and tenderized beneath their saddles as they rode.

It was from Hamburg, that German sailors carried their favorite meat loaf-like patty, now grilled, over to the states in the 1800’s. In 1974, shortly after I became a public relations consultant to McDonald’s, I received an international phone call from the advertising agency for McDonald’s in Germany, which was about to open up the large Hamburg market, and was looking for PR ideas. I thought a bit, and reflected on that hamburger history, and suggested their theme be “the hamburger returns to Hamburg.” When McDonald’s opened in Hamburg, the idea became an enormous hit with the local folks – those original Hamburghers.

That same Fletcher Davis, who was selling french fries at the 1904 World’s Fair, also brought along to the fair his recipe for a ground-beef patty served between slices of home-made bread. The ground beef sandwich was named the hamburger, as recognized by some visitors of German descent, and the rest, as they say, became history. Of course, there are other legends of the hamburger’s origin, one dating to 1885 in Seymour, Wisconsin, which is also home the Hamburger Hall of Fame, and another to 1895 in a Yale off-campus eatery called Louie’s Lunch.

Hamburgers have come a long way since then. Are any of you familiar with the Economist magazine’s Big Mac Index to explain international exchange rates? The Economist’s website explains it this way, “Burgernomics is based on the theory of purchasing price parity, the notion that a dollar should buy the same amount in all currencies.” In their shopping basket lies a single McDonald’s Big Mac hamburger, a fast food staple available in 120 countries. The Big Mac purchasing-power parity is the exchange rate that would mean hamburgers cost the same in America as abroad.

When I first heard of the Economist’s desire to create the index, I and my associates at McDonald’s thought they were crazy, because the index would be vulnerable to criticism for ignoring price variables such as taxes, profit margins, and the cost of non-tradable goods and services. Economist editor, Pam Woodall, commented that, “If you were to look at this from a purely economic point of view, there are reasons why the Big Mac Index is a flawed measure of purchasing price parity. But what is curious is that it is actually a good predictor over time. If more investors believed in our index, they’d be a lot richer today,” Woodall concluded.

More recently, a major wire service published results of research in the form of a question: “What is America’s biggest selling food: hamburgers, french fries or pizza?” The answer: french fries are served with 22% of all restaurant meals, and hamburgers with 17% of all meals in restaurants.

French fries have been a secret of economic success all right, evidence McDonald’s. Here’s a quote on how important french fries were to his building of McDonald’s into the world’s largest food service organization, from Ray Kroc’s autobiography, “Grinding it Out.” “Now, to most people, a french-fried potato is a pretty uninspiring object…just something to kill time chewing between bites of hamburger and swallows of milk shake. That’s your ordinary fry. The McDonald’s brother’s french fry was in an entirely different league. They lavished attention on it. I didn’t know it then, but one day I would, too. The french fry would become almost sacrosanct to me, its preparation a ritual to be followed religiously.”

McDonald’s recipe for fries, like the finest gourmet french fry recipes, call for the classic Russet Burbank Idaho potato to be twice fried. Julia Child once called McDonald’s french fries the finest in the world. McDonald’s fries are the product of continuous research. According to former Business Week Chicago Bureau Chief, Jack Love, who wrote the definitive McDonald’s history, “Behind the Arches,” “The fabled McDonald’s french fries were no accident.” He concludes that fries “gave McDonald’s its most definitive product differentiation…and some say fries were even more important in building McDonald’s than the hamburger itself.”

Today’s french fry is something of a wonder. Luther Burbank, the father of the Idaho french fry potato, lived from 1849 to 1926, and became, with just an elementary education, one of history’s most inventive and productive breeders of plants. He conducted as many as three thousand experiments at once, painstakingly crossbreeding foreign and native species of plants, cultivating the resulting seedlings, and using grafting to arrive at new and better breeds. A hundred years after their invention his breeds of peach, plum and nectarine, to name a few, are still on the market.

But his greatest success was the Russet Burbank potato of 1871, better known as the Idaho potato. This was soon exported to help Ireland recover from the devastating potato blight of 1840-60. Even today, despite all the horticulturists who followed, Burbank’s large, hardy, fine-grained potato is unsurpassed and a staple of agriculture.

Speaking of the popularity of hamburgers and fries, the topic of nomenclature is unavoidable. I previously mentioned the 2003 flare-up that led the House of Representatives cafeteria to rename french fries as Freedom Fries, and French Toast as Freedom Toast. In fact, this silliness has come up before. As part of the anti-German sentiment during world War I, sauerkraut was renamed liberty cabbage and hamburgers became liberty steaks. Even German measles fell to this “sick” game, becoming liberty measles. In World War II the frankfurter bowed out to the hot dog, and although frankfurter is still recognized, it is not in common use.

Other similar examples include filete imperial (or “imperial beef”) in Spain, replacing filete russo (or “Russian beef”), after the triumph of the anti-communist General Franco, and kafe elliniko (or “Greek coffee”) replacing kafe turiko (or “Turkish coffee”) on Greek menus after the Turkish-Greek collisions of the 1920’s. So beware, Spaghetti Bolognese could become noodles with hamburger — the next time we cross with the Italians.

More on french fry nomenclature: In a quick trip around the world, the ever-present fry is called many things. In Brazil, it’s batata frita; in French Canada, it’s patatas fritas; in Chinese Mandarin, it’s Shu Tiao (Shu for potato and Tiao for stripe or stick); in Denmark, it’s pomfritter, in Israel it’s tuganim; in Ireland – it’s chips, not be confused with crisps, which are really potato chips; in Mexico, it’s papas a la Francesca; in Poland, it’s frytki; in Swedish slang, it’s strips; and in Thailand, it’s man fa rang tod, meaning potato fries, and in Japan, a familiar-sounding furaido poteeto.

Back in the U.S., we have many names for fry variations, most descriptive and some of which you’ll recognize from your own background: there are slim shoestring or matchstick fries, crinkle or waffle cuts, hearty cottage fries or thick steak house fries (often with the skin on) , and concertina or curly fries. Then there are seasoned fries made with breading and spices, and even Burger king’s new turnabout on fried chicken called Chicken Fries, which are pseudo fries: thin strips of fried chicken served in a french fry-type box.

Then there are tasty nationalistic variations: in Quebec and New Brunswick, fries are the main component of a dish called poutine, a mixture of french fries with fresh cheddar cheese curds, covered with hot gravy. In the Netherlands, they like satay peanut sauce with their fries. Speaking of fries going global, a book, by Canadian George Cohon, on opening up the Russian market to McDonald’s is titled: “To Russia With Fries,” and includes a forward by Mikhail Gorbachev.

Back in the U.S., in Utah and surrounding areas, french fries are often served with fry sauce that is a mixture of spices, mayonnaise and ketchup, and in many areas of our country, good old messy cheese fries are popular with the younger generation.

Speaking of messes, we’ve already looked at some of the international debates that have ranged around issues about the nationality of fries, so let’s dive a little further into some of the other issues that have been associated with the friendly French fry.

One of my favorite political photos hangs in the office of my successor at McDonald’s, Walt Riker. It’s a picture of Bill Clinton receiving the traditional welcome of new President’s by the Senate leadership. There, in the Senate dining room, sits Democrat Clinton holding out a box of McDonald’s fries, surrounded by arch Republican, Senate Majority Leader Bob Dole and fellow senators. Walt was then Dole’s press secretary, and came up with the idea of warming up that first meeting with Clinton by serving him the kind of egalitarian fast food lunch he’d often enjoyed as a governor.

Moving slightly away from politics, to energy, have you heard of the Green Grease Machine? It was cobbled together a few years ago, and is a van that runs on clean-burning biodiesel fuel made from cheap, readily available used restaurant vegetable cooking oil. That’s right, French fry oil. Builders claimed the van “got 1300 miles per acre.” While there’s been plenty of controversy about the health issues around french fries, now there’s also an upside to french fry oil – it could help solve the growing energy shortage. And, the exhaust smells like fries!

Today, after years of careful observation and experimentation, research is beginning to show that maybe we can sometimes have our fries and eat them too. Using basic principles of chemistry and engineering, scientists are finding new ways to make better fries that strike a balance among flavor, texture and nutrition. Their work could, eventually, propel french fries into a more modern version of perfection.

Some scientists have tried chemically engineered, low-fat oils such as Olestra to make healthier fries. Other researchers have been working to make edible coatings that will keep oil from penetrating the potatoes. Another idea on the table is to pack potatoes full of vitamins, through bio-engineering. And there is a promising new technique for making fries that are good and healthy which involves infrared energy – a sort of heat lamp. By controlling the intensity to mimic the heat transfer involved in frying, it might be possible to produce more perfect fries. Meanwhile, research continues to reduce trans-fats, while expanding nutritional disclosures and extending healthy lifestyles education programs.

On a less pedantic note, maybe you saw the McDonald’s commercials from last year’s Super-Bowl about a supposed Lincolnfry, a French fry that seemed to contain the profile of Abraham Lincoln. The fry was marketed on Ebay, and may have become the most expensive French fry of all time – it sold for $21,600. By the way, the Lincolnfry proceeds were donated to Ronald McDonald House Charities.

On another note, this time of judicial irony, some of you may have seen that a legal case about a single French fry recently became a factor in the Congressional hearings relating to Judge John Roberts candidacy for the Supreme Court, and ultimately as Chief Justice. It was the case of Ansche Hedgepath, a 12-year old girl. She was sitting in a Washington, D.C. metro station and opened and ate a single French fry from a bag in her lap. She did this in plain view of an undercover officer, who arrested and handcuffed her, removed her shoelaces, then fingerprinted and incarcerated her for 3 hours at a police station. Her offense was eating in a metro station, for which zero tolerance applied. An adult would have received a zero tolerance citation, and paid a fine. Ansche however, as a minor, was not eligible for such a citation, so was arrested.

On appeal, Judge Roberts ruled that the arrest was legitimate. She ate that fry in obvious violation of a legitimate city ordinance, and in the clear view of a police officer. No leniency for Ansche. To Judge Robert’s credit, he did sympathize that the subway policies were “foolish,” but he upheld the lower court. That single fry did her in.

By now, you’re probably about done in, as well. So, I’ll bring this “appreciation of the french fry” to a close. But, I realize I’ve left out, until now, one final dimension from the title of this essay, which again is — French Fried: From Monticello to the Moon. What’s this about french fries and outer space, you ask? Well, in 1995, NASA and the University of Wisconsin at Madison, created a new technology with the goal of feeding astronauts on long space voyages, with a view to eventually feeding future space colonies. In October of that year, the potato became the first vegetable to be grown in outer space.

It’s a funny thing, because one of my first assignments shortly after becoming a McDonald’s consultant, some 30 years ago, was to help associate McDonald’s image, as it approached its 30th anniversary, with the space age.

One of the fun facts we worked up in support of the premise that McDonald’s menu might literally reach space one day, was to compute the number of McDonald’s french fries, strung end to end that it would take to reach the moon. To figure it out we sent for a box of fries and measured each one, then divided and determined the average length, and multiplied by the average mileage to the moon – a quarter million miles. If you’re curious, pick up a box of fries at McDonald’s, do the math, and see how close you get to 4.5 billion fries to the moon.

I’d like to take that long ladder of moon-bound french fries just one last step farther into the future, as I wrap up this voyage through history. Albert Einstein thought that perhaps the greatest challenge facing mankind is to “widen our circle of compassion” across both time and space. Our ethnic and geopolitical squabbling might pale into insignificance if our compassionate circles were wide enough, he reasoned.

So let’s no longer worry whether the little fry is French, Belgian, American or Russian, but take it with us into the future, even into space, as a tasty treat for our frail band of wandering humanity, and continue to enjoy the good little things in life.

John Calvi, in a 1982 poem called “French Fries,” perhaps said it best, in his final stanza, when he wrote:

“Some think the army, the bombs and the guns
Will one day save all of our lives,
I don’t believe it – heat up your pans
Make peace, and lots of French fries.”

So, thanks very much for coming along on tonights french fried journey, “From Monticello to the Moon.”

I wish I could have brought in some sample fries, but you know they only stay crisp for a few minutes. However, as a consolation prize, I do have a small McDonald’s gift certificate for each of you. Have a safe journey home, and no one could blame you if you stopped for some fries on the way! Happy Halloween, and goodnight.


Reverse Engineering McFries

The Burger Lab: How to Make Perfect Thin and Crisp French Fries

Golden and delicious. [Photographs: J. Kenji Lopez-Alt]

Perfect Thin and Crispy French Fries
N.B. I apologize in advance for the length of this post. French fries are a pretty epic subject for me…

I’m gonna come right out and say something that I’m sure you won’t all openly agree with: McDonald’s french fries are great. At their best, they are everything a french fry should be: salty, crisp, light, and not greasy. Granted, you get the occasional odd franchise that lets’em sit under the heat lamp for a couple hours too long, but on the whole, I find it remarkable that the bigwigs have discovered a way to create a frozen fry that even a one armed eyeless chimp has trouble screwing up. And I know, because they’ve got one working the fry station at the franchise on my corner.

To be absolutely honest, I’ve never been able to make fries as good as theirs (shhhhh!). Sure, my thick-cut pub-style fries are super-potatoey and fantastic, and when I’m in the mood for them, my seasoned steak fries can’t be beat, but for thin, super-crisp fries (I’m talking the kind that only appear in fast food restaurants and French bistros under the name frites)? I’m always better off running down to the take-out window than bothering to fry them myself at home.

Until now.

I’ve been literally giddy with the quality of the fries that have been coming out of my kitchen for the last two days. My wife won’t hear the end of it. Even my puppy is wondering why his owner keeps exclaiming “Holy s**t that’s good!” every half hour from the kitchen. I’ve cooked over 43 batches of fries in the last three days, and I’m happy to report that I’ve finally found a way to consistently reach crisp, golden Nirvana.

There are a few factors that go into making a perfect fry:

Perfect Fry Factor #1: The exterior must be very crisp, but not tough.


In order to achieve this crispness, the surface structure of a fry must be riddled with micro-bubbles. It’s these tiny crisp bubbles that increase the surface area of the fry, making it extra crunchy. Ideally, this layer should only be as thick as it needs to be to add crispness. Any thicker, and you start running into leathery territory.

Perfect Fry Factor #2: The interior must be intact, fluffy, and have a strong potato flavor.


Fries with a pasty, mealy, or gummy interior or even worse, the dreaded state known as “hollow-fry” (when the interior is missing entirely) are an automatic fail in my fry book.

Perfect Fry Factor #3: The fry must be an even, light golden blond


Fries that are too dark or are spotty have an offputting burnt flavor that distracts from the potato. Light golden but perfectly crisp is how I want my fries to be.

Perfect Fry Factor #4: The fry must stay crisp and tasty for at least as long as it takes to eat a full serving.


Fries that comes straight out of the fryer are almost always perfectly crisp. The true test of a great fry is whether or not it remains crisp and edible a few minutes later after its been sitting on your plate. The bendy fry pictured above fails that test.

I decided to go with the next best alternative: steal their recipe

So how does one going about achieving these goals? The traditional double fry method (once at low temp, then again at high temp) works, but it’s far from foolproof, and fails to meet all of the requirements I’ve set for a perfect fry. For one thing, the fries inevitably come out too brown—some times massively so. For another, they lose their crunch within a few minutes after coming out of the fryer. Clearly the method needs an overhaul. I suppose I could do what the McDonald’s Corporation did and spend millions of dollars researching exactly how to accomplish fry perfection time after time anywhere around the world, but unfortunately Serious Eats doesn’t pay me well enough to do that. I’m also understaffed, to say the least. So I decided to go with the next best alternative: steal their recipe.

That’s much easier said than done.

Anyone with a buck can get a batch of fully cooked McDonald’s fries, but I was after something more. I wanted to get fries from the store in their fully frozen state so that I could examine their surface for clues on how they were parcooked, as well as attempt to fry them myself at home to discover if there is any secret in the fry oil in the shops.

I figured I’d be just be able to walk into the store and order them straight from the cashier.

“Welcome to McDonald’s, may I take your order?”

“Yes Ma’am. I’d like a large fries please, hold the cooking.”

“Excuse me?”

I know she’s already said no in her head, but I press on just the same: “Um… I’d just like the frozen fries please.”

“I’m sorry sir, we just don’t do that.”

Time for some intimidation tactics: “Ok. Could I speak to the manager please?”

“I am the manager.”

Sh*t. I bring out the really big guns: “Listen, the thing is, my wife is pregnant—like really pregnant—and she sent me on a quest for McDonald’s french fries. But she only likes them really fresh, like straight out of the fryer fresh, so I figured I’d just get some frozen, and fry them for her at home. You know how it is. Women—no accounting for’em, right?”

She remains unimpressed, and needless to say, I go home fry-less, contemplating whether attempting to leverage an unborn, un-conceived son in exchange for a couple dozen frozen potato sticks is grounds for eternal damnation. Thank God I’m an atheist.

In a last ditch effort, I appeal to my Facebook fans for some assistance, promising cold hard cash and full credit in this story to anyone who could get me a stash of frozen McDonald’s fries. Within 24 hours, I had received this email from a Grant Held:

Kenji, you put forth an excellent challenge; I enjoy both challenges and your food writing immensely, so I came up with an excellent plan that worked the first try.

Getting your frozen fries was simply a matter of finding the right fraternity man; One who had the ability to make up extemporaneous bullsh*t and the all important “charm factor.” Some would say possessing these attributes can help you get laid in college, but I plead The Fifth….

The plan involved me printing out a fake list of items needed for a Scavenger Hunt sponsored by “The Simplot Foundation.” A “Mr. Simplot” had endowed an annual prize for the winning team of the scavenger hunt, which would be used to fund the “research projects of the members of the winning team each year.” (Members also had to belong to the Harold McGee Society and Order of Brillat-Savarin).

I walked into the McD’s on xxxxxxx. (The exact location has been removed because we don’t want to get the manager fired)

I had pre-printed a list of items for said made up “Scavenger Hunt” (I basically Googled “Scavenger Hunt Lists” and added “Frozen McDonald’s french fries”.)

I walked in, asked for the manager and explained the scavenger hunt. I said I needed 25 fries, which I was willing to pay for, but they had to be frozen. Her English was not ideal, so I spoke Spanish, and a young associate took kindly upon me and explained what I needed. The manager agreed, but thought I was asking for 25 FREE packages of cooked fries!!! And she was willing to give them to me!!! (She said my accent was great but my grammar was terrible… oh well…)

I said I needed FROZEN fries, which really perplexed her, but my young McD’s associate friend explained the concept of a scavenger hunt and soon enough I was invited into the kitchen and she grabbed a handful of fries and placed them in the zip lock bag I brought with me.

Grant, you are a genius amongst men, and I am forever in your debt.

The handoff was made the next day, and I finally had a batch of frozen McDonald’s fries on which to operate.


The first thing I noticed was the surface texture of the fries. They seemed smooth, but on closer inspection, I noticed that they were dotted with tiny tiny bubbles, indicating that they had definitely been fried at least once prior to arriving at the store. I measured them with calipers and found that they were precisely 1/4 of an inch thick. A good size for optimizing crust to interior ratio.


McDonald’s used to fry their potatoes in beef tallow, giving them extra flavor and making them extra crisp, but they stopped doing that years ago. But perhaps there’s still something magic about their oil? To test this, I fried up a batch of the frozen fries in 375°F peanut oil, letting them cook for about 3 minutes before draining, seasoning, and tasting.


They were just as perfect as the fries at the store. That answers the first question: there is no magic in the oil. Something must be done to those potatoes during the pre-processing that makes them unique.

For the next phase, I started doing some research and caught a lucky break by finding this article online, which essentially runs through the whole process of what goes on in a McDonald’s potato processing plant as told by LeAron Plackett, a thirteen-year-long employee. The parts that interested me most were on the second page:

The fries are then flumed out of the A.D.R. room to the “blancher.” The blancher is a large vessel filled with one hundred and seventy degree water. The trip through the blancher takes about fifteen minutes… After the fries leave the blancher, they are dried and then it’s off to the “fryer,” which is filled with one hundred percent vegetable oil. The oil is heated to three hundred and sixty five degrees and the fries take a fifty second dip before being conveyed to the “de-oiler shaker,” where excess oil is “shook off.”


So McDonald’s does indeed use a double fry method, but it’s far from the traditional one. Rather than a slow low temperature fry for the first round, the fries get dunked into very hot oil for only 50 seconds (the second fry is then carried out at the actual location). In addition to this, the potatoes get a pre-fry blanching step in hot water. What could the purpose of this be?

To answer that question, it’s important to understand exactly what happens when a french fry is cooked.

in order to get the ideal crust, all three of these elements must be in the proper balance, and the proper state

Like all plants and animals, potatoes are composed of cells. These cells are held together by pectin, a form of sugar that acts as a type of glue. These cells also contain starch granules—tiny sacs that resemble water balloons, as well as simple sugars. When these starch granules are exposed to water and heat, they begin to swell, eventually bursting, and releasing a shower of swollen starch molecules. Now the problem is, in order to get the ideal crust, all three of these elements must be in the proper balance, and the proper state. Too many simple sugars, and your potato will brown long before it crisps. If pectin has broken down too much before the starch granules have had a chance to burst and release their sticky innards, your potatoes will either fail to form a crust, will fall apart before it gets a chance to, or in the worst case will cook up completely hollow, like this:


That’s not a good thing.

Pre-cooking the fries in a water bath the way McDonald’s does accomplishes two goals. First, it rinses off excess simple sugars, helping the fries attain a light gold color, instead of a deep dark brown. Secondly, it activates an enzyme called pectin methylesterase (PME). According to an article in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, PME induces calcium and magnesium to act as a sort of buttress for pectin. They strengthen the pectin’s hold on the potato cell’s walls, which helps the potatoes stay firmer and more intact when cooked to a higher temperature. That’s why the surface of a McDonald’s fry looks the way it does: rather than blistering into large bubbles like a traditional double-fried french fry does, the reinforced walls form the super-tiny bubbles that give them their extra crunch.

Now, like most enzymes, PME is only active within a certain temperature range, acting faster and faster as the temperature gets higher until, like a switch, it shuts off completely once it reaches a certain level. 170°F is just under that cutoff point.

My objective just became much clearer: in order to get my fries ultra crisp, I’d need to find a way to strengthen their pectin before allowing their starch granules to burst.

The most obvious way to do this is just to copy McDonald’s exactly: cook the potatoes in a precisely maintained 170°F water bath for 15 minutes. I tried it using my Sous-Vide Supreme, followed by a fry at 360°F for 50 seconds, and a second fry at 375°F for 3 1/2 minutes. It worked like a charm. The fries tasted nearly identical to those that come from McDonald’s. Of course, now two new questions entered my head: What about for those poor souls who don’t have a temperature-controlled water bath? And more importantly, now that I’ve got the fries down, could I make them even better? I mean, they taste fantastic now, but we all know that McDonald’s fries get soggy pretty darn fast. If these fries were really going to be perfect, I’d have to address that issue.

Was I gonna have to break out the beer cooler for this one?

To solve the first problem, my initial though was to start the potatoes in cold water, and slowly bring it up to a simmer. My hope was that by doing this, they’d spend enough time under the 170°F cutoff point to improve their structure adequately. No dice. The potatoes were certainly better than ones dunked straight into the fryer, but they didn’t come close to the originals. Next I tried adding a measured amount of boiling water to a pot containing the cut potatoes. I calculated exactly how much water I’d need in order for it to equilibrate to 170°F. It worked a little better, but the water temperature dropped off too quickly for it to be effective. Was I gonna have to break out the beer cooler for this one? There had to be another way.

That’s when I thought—perhaps there is another way to strengthen pectin without having to rely on some fickle enzyme (I’ve never liked enzymes anyway), and it struck me: apple pie.

What’s this got to do with french fries? Well everyone who’s ever baked an apple pie knows that different apples cook differently. Some retain their shape, while others turn to mush. The difference largely has to do with their acidity. Thus super tart apples like Granny Smith will stay fully intact, while sweeter apples like a Macoun will almost completely dissolve. Just like a potato, apple cells are held together by pectin. Moral of the story: acid slows the breakdown of pectin.

What if rather than trying to fiddle with temperature, I just relied on the use of acid to help the potatoes keep their structure?

I tried bringing two pots of cut potatoes to a boil side by side, the first with plain water, and the second with water spiked with vinegar at a ratio of one tablespoon per quart. Here’s what I saw:


The fries boiled in plain water disintegrated, making them nearly impossible to pick up. When I added them to the hot oil, they broke apart even further. On the other hand, those boiled in the vinegared water remained perfectly intact, even after boiling for a full ten minutes. When fried, they had fabulously crisp crusts with tiny, bubbly, blistered surfaces that stayed crisp even when they were completely cool. As for the flavor, if I tasted really hard, I could pick up a faint vinegary undertone, though I wouldn’t have if I didn’t know it was there. Even knowing it was there, it wasn’t unpleasant at all. After all, I’m used to putting my fries in ketchup or mayo, both of which contain plenty of acid.

This is a picture of one of the fries which I bent a full ten minutes after it had come out of the oil. See how crisp is stays?


my goal should be to make this evaporation as easy as possible

Now that I’d perfected the crust, the final issue to deal with was that of the interior. One last question remained: how to maximize the flavor of the interior. In order to stay fluffy and not gummy, a lot of the interior moisture needs to be expelled in the cooking process, so my goal should be to make this evaporation as easy as possible. I figure that so far, by cooking it all the way to boiling point, I’m doing pretty much the right thing—the more cooked the potatoes are, the more the cell structure breaks down, and the easier it is for water to be expelled. To confirm this, I cooked three batches of potatoes, starting each in a pot of cold, vinegared water, and bringing them up to various final temperature (170°F, 185°F, and 212°F) before draining and double-frying them. Not surprisingly, the boiled potatoes had the best internal structure. Luckily, they were the easiest to make as well.

But was there anything more I could do? I thought back to those McDonald’s fries and realized a vital step that I had neglected to test: freezing. Every batch of McDonald’s fries is frozen before being shipped out to the stores. I always figured this step was for purely economic reasons, but perhaps there was more to it?

I tried freezing half a batch of fries before frying them and tasted them side-by-side against the other half.


Fries and frozen fries, pre-blanched to various temperatures. Notice how dark the un-blanched fries are due to excess sugars browning.

The improvement was undeniable. The frozen fries had a distinctly fluffier interior, while the unfrozen ones were still ever-so-slightly gummy. It makes perfect sense. Freezing the potatoes causes their moisture to convert to ice, forming sharp, jagged crystals. These crystals damage the cell structure of the potato, making it easier for them to be released once they are heated and convert to steam. The best part? Because freezing actually improves them, I can do the initial blanching and frying steps in large batches, freeze them, and have a constant supply of ready-to-fry potatoes right in my freezer just like Ronald himself!

I know it’s bad form to toot your own horn, but I’m simply amazed that these fries have been coming out of my own kitchen. I’ve been eating fries in various shades of good or bad constantly for the past few days, and I’m absolutely sick of them, yet I am still eating them even as I sit here and type. I really hope my wife doesn’t mind greasy keyboards. You never know what’s gonna set her off.

For instance—she gets mad when I say things like that about her on completely public forums. Go figure.


Perfect Thin and Crispy French Fries
May 28, 2010 8:00AM
J. Kenji López-Alt
J. Kenji López-Alt is the Managing Culinary Director of Serious Eats, and author of the James Beard Award-nominated column The Food Lab, where he unravels the science of home cooking. A restaurant-trained chef and former Editor at Cook’s Illustrated magazine, he is the author of the New York Times best-selling cookbook The Food Lab: Better Home Cooking Through Science, available now wherever books are sold.